This is where an attacker intercepts traffic between two parties to either steal information or edit the information for their own gain. If you were on your bank's website, what information could someone get by acting as a middle man to all of your packets?

A way of verifying the identity of a user by using two or more security mechanisms. Something you know: a password, something you have: a security token or badge, or something you are: biometrics.

Tricking people into revealing personal/confidential information. This is normally done by leveraging emergent or sensitive situations that encourage people to comply without question. Free giveaways, limited time offers, car warranties, things of that nature.